The vertical stabilizer
The vertical stabilizer, or fins, of aircraft, missiles, or bombs are typically found on the aft end of the fuselage or body and are intended to reduce aerodynamic side slip and provide directional stability. It is analogous to a skeg on boats and ships.
On aircraft, vertical stabilizers generally point upwards. These are also known as the vertical tail and are part of an aircraft’s empennage.
This upright mounting position has two major benefits:
The drag of the stabilizer increases at speed, which creates a nose-up moment that helps to slow down the aircraft that prevent dangerous Overspeed
And when the aircraft banks the stabilizer produces lift which counters the banking moment and keeps the aircraft upright in the absence of control input.
If the vertical stabilizer mounts on the underside, it would produce positive feedback whenever the aircraft dove or banked, which is inherently unstable.
The trailing end of the stabilizer is typically movable, and called the rudder; this allows the aircraft pilot to control yaw.
Often placing navigational radio or airband transceiver antennas on or inside the vertical tail.
The Horizontal Stabilizer
Located on the left and right sides of the airplane’s tail, design a horizontal stabilizer to maintain the airplane’s trim.
It works by creating an upwards force that balances the airplane, horizontally, during flight. As the airplane flies, its horizontal stabilizers will push the air upwards to prevent swings in trim.
Horizontal stabilizers are rather simple components that consist of small and thin pieces of material – typically the same material from which constructed the fuselage.
They essentially look like small wings on the sides of the tail. Both the left and right sides of an airplane’s tail will have a horizontal stabilizer.
While horizontal stabilizers create a vertical force during flight, they extend horizontally from the sides of the tail.
It Is a primary control surface used to steer a ship, boat, submarine, hovercraft, aircraft, or other conveyance that moves through a fluid medium (generally air or water).
A similar structure at the tail of an aircraft, used for effecting horizontal changes in course, using on an aircraft the rudder a primarily to counter adverse yaw and p-factor and is not the primary control used to turn the airplane.
In basic form, a rudder is a flat plane or sheet of material attached with hinges to the craft’s stern, tail, or after the end.
Often rudders shaping to minimize hydrodynamic or aerodynamic drag. In typical aircraft, the rudder operates by pedals via mechanical linkages or hydraulics.
On an aircraft, the rudder is a directional control surface along with the rudder-like elevator (usually attached to the horizontal tail structure, if not a slab elevator ) and ailerons (attached to the wings) that control pitch and roll, respectively.
The rudder is usually attached to the vertical fin (or vertical stabilizer) which allows the pilot to control yaw about the vertical axis, i.e. change the horizontal direction in which the nose is pointing.
The rudder’s direction in aircraft since the “Golden Age” of flight between the two World Wars into the 21st century has been manipulated with the movement of a pair of counter-moving foot pedals by the pilot.
While during the pre-1919 era rudder control was most often operated by a center-pivoted, solid “rudder bar” which usually had pedal and/or stirrup-like hardware on its ends to allow the pilot’s feet to stay close to the ends of the bar’s rear surface.
In practice, using both aileron and rudder control input together to turn an aircraft, the ailerons imparting roll, the rudder imparting yaw, and also compensating for a phenomenon called adverse yaw.
A rudder alone will turn a conventional fixed-wing aircraft, but much more slowly than if ailerons are also used in conjunction.
The use of rudder and ailerons together produces coordinated turns, in which the longitudinal axis of the aircraft is in line with the arc of the turn, neither slipping (under-ruddered), nor skidding (over-ruddered).
Improperly ruddered turns at low speed can precipitate a spin which can be dangerous at low altitudes.
opposite directions slip
Sometimes pilots may intentionally operate the rudder and ailerons in opposite directions in a maneuver called a slip.
This happened to overcome crosswinds and keep the fuselage in line with the runway, or to more rapidly lose altitude by increasing drag, or both.
Any aircraft rudder is subject to considerable forces that determine its position via a force or torque balance equation.
In extreme cases, these forces can lead to loss of rudder control or even destruction of the rudder, as in multi-engined aircraft the engines are off the centerline.
May use the rudder to compensate for the yaw effect of asymmetric thrust.
Further, on large jet airliners, the rudder is mainly used to align the aircraft with the runway during crosswind landing and take-off.
For taxiing and during the beginning of the take-off, steering aircraft by a combination of rudder input as well as turning the nosewheel or tailwheel.
At slow speeds the nosewheel or tailwheel has the most control authority, but as the speed increases the aerodynamic effects of the rudder increase, thereby making the rudder more and more important for yaw control.